CVD

Chemical vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition(CVD) refers to the formation of the thin film on the substrate involves chemical reaction. 

Typically, a fluid precursor moves onto the substrate and one or more chemical reactions take place, which forms a layer of the thin film. 

 Chemical Vapor Deposition generally uses a gas-phase precursor, often a halide or hydride of the element to be deposited.  In the case of metal-organic chemical vapor depsoisition(MOCVD), an organometallic gas is used.  Commercial techniques often use very low pressures of precursor gas.  In the case of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD), which is a special case of MOCVD,  an ionized vapor, or plasma, is used as a precursor.  Commercial PECVD relies on electromagnetic means (electric current or microwave excitation), rather than a chemical reaction, to produce a plasma. MOCVD is currently being used in the manufacturing of graphene, carbon nanotubes, LED, laser-emitting diodes, multijunction solar cell, optoelectronics, microelectronics, semiconductor, phase-change memory, photodectors, and mirco-electro-mechanical systems(MEMS).  Chemical depositon is typically much less directional, or sensitive to geometry, than physical deposition

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