Deposition methods that do not need sputtering targets

Pulsed laser deposition

Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) uses pulses of a high-power laser beam to ablate the target material. 

 The material on the target surface is instantly evaporated and turned into plasma, and it returns back to vapor phase.  Finally, the ablated material then collects and deposits on top of a correctly placed substrate. 

This technique has the advatages over the others in that it preserves the stoichiometry of the target on the film formed and the rate of deposition is higher than the others

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