Deposition methods that do not need sputtering targets

Physical vapor deposition

Physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD refers to the purely physical formation of the thin film on top of the substrate,  there should be no chemical reactioninvolved in the formation of the thin film. 

 Typically PVD is done in a low-pressure environment, though there are a number of PVD techniques. Evaporation deposition raises the temperature of material of thin film so its vapor pressure reaches a useful range.  The vapor then moves and deposits on top of the substrate of interest. Electron Beam Evaporation a form of PVD in which the target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum. The electrion beam causes atoms from the target material to transform into a gaseous phase, these atoms then return to solid form coating everything in the vacuum chamber with a thin film. It can also be used in conjuction with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).

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